First Trimester Screening

First trimester screening involves blood a blood test and an ultrasound. The ultrasound measures the thickness of the baby’s neck called nuchal translucency. First trimester screening looks for an increased […] Continue

CVS (Chorionic villus sampling)

Chorionic villus sampling, CVS, is a procedure that can obtain genetic information about the unborn baby. CVS is typically done between 10-12 weeks. The advantage to CVS over amniocentesis is […] Continue

Coughs and Colds Overview

Coughs and colds are extremely common and are typically caused by viruses. Viruses do not respond to antibiotics but get better on their own. Colds typically last 7-10 days. Common […] Continue

Cold vs Allergies

When someone has a runny nose and a cough it may be difficult to distinguish between a cold and an allergy. Allergies typically have sneezing and an itchy nose as […] Continue

Prescription Medications

Prescription medications are not usually necessary to treat a cough or cold. Over-the-counter medications are usually all that is necessary. In some instances prescriptions may be of benefit. If the […] Continue

Over the Counter Medications

Over-the counter medications are the mainstay of treatment for coughs and colds. Colds are caused by viruses that do not respond to antibiotics. They are self limiting meaning they will […] Continue


Pneumonia is an infection of the lung tissue itself. It usually starts with a cough and cold symptoms but then worsens. People with pneumonia  usually have a fever over 101 […] Continue

Sore Throat

A sore throat is another symptom that can go along with a cough and cold. Most sore throats are caused by viruses and do not need antibiotics. Strep throat is […] Continue


Bronchitis is an upper respiratory infection where the infection has settled in the upper respiratory tubes called the bronchials. This usually has a significant cough with the production of phlegm. […] Continue

Acute Sinusitis

Acute sinusitis (a sinus infection) is often starts as a cold and cough and eventually settles in the sinuses. Although headache is common with a cold, sinus headaches are more […] Continue

Hypertension Overview

Hypertension, also called high blood pressure, is a very common medical problem. The circulatory system involves the heart pumping blood into the blood vessels. Hypertension is when the pressure in […] Continue

What is Hypertension

Normal blood pressure in an adult is 120/80. Hypertension is defined as blood pressure greater than 140/90. Blood pressure readings are made up of two numbers the top number is […] Continue

Monitoring Hypertension

How often a persons blood pressure needs to be check varies greatly depending on their circumstances. A young healthy adult with normal blood pressure only needs to have a blood […] Continue

Hypertension Medications

There are many medications that are available to treat hypertension. Each medication has its unique advantages, disadvantages, and side effects. The specific medication that is chosen will take into account […] Continue

Vasectomy Overview

Vasectomy is a procedure that produces permanent sterilization for men. Sterilization is when the man is no longer fertile and is no longer able to father children. This procedure can […] Continue

Preparing For Your Vasectomy

No-Scalpel Vasectomy is a procedure that produces permanent sterilization for men.  There are several steps to take in preparation for having a vasectomy. Prior to performing this small operation, a […] Continue

Vasectomy Aftercare

After having a vasectomy procedure, a man should follow some simple steps to reduce discomfort and reduce the chance of having a complication of the procedure.  These include the following: […] Continue

Diabetes Overview

Diabetes Mellitus, often called “sugar diabetes” by non-medical people,  is a syndrome in which the amount of glucose in the blood is too high. Type 1 diabetes which was called […] Continue

Diabetes Insulin

Insulin is used to control blood sugars in people with type 1 diabetes and sometimes for people with type 2 diabetes. For type 2 diabetes insulin may be the initial […] Continue

Menopause Overview

Menopause refers to the condition when a woman’s ovaries stop producing eggs and female hormones due to age. This causes an end to menstrual cycles. For some women the menopause […] Continue

C-Section Anesthesia Overview

C-Sections in the United States are most commonly performed using epidural or spinal anesthesia. General anesthesia is more rare and used either for true emergencies or if there is a […] Continue

Choices of Labor Analgesia

There are different choices to manage the pain of labor and childbirth. They include natural methods, IV medications such as narcotics or narcotic analogs, epidural analgesia, and intrathecal or “one […] Continue

Spinal Headache

A spinal headache is a headache after a spinal or epidural procedure caused by spinal fluid leaking out of the puncture site into the surrounding tissues. It is a postural […] Continue

C-Section Anesthesia Spinal

Spinal anesthesia is the most common anesthesia used for c-sections. It is quickly administered, works well, and is extremely safe. Most scheduled c-sections are done using spinal anesthesia. C-sections are […] Continue

Infertility Overview

Infertility is defined as a person that is not pregnant after one year of trying to conceive. About 40% of infertility is due to a problem with the woman, 40% […] Continue

In Vitro Fertilization

In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a procedure in which the eggs from the women are mixed with the sperm from the man in a laboratory outside of the body. Embryos […] Continue

Infertility Treatment: Clomid

The most common infertility medication is clomiphene citrate brand name Clomid. This is used for women who are not ovulating. Glucophage aka metformin can be added to the Clomid for […] Continue

Advanced Reproductive Technology

Advanced reproductive Technology (ART) is defined on any medical treatment that helps overcome infertility. For the purposes here I am using it to describe some of the more techniquely advanced […] Continue