Menopause Overview

Menopause refers to the condition when a woman’s ovaries stop producing eggs and female hormones due to age. This causes an end to menstrual cycles. For some women the menopause […] Continue

Infertility Overview

Infertility is defined as a person that is not pregnant after one year of trying to conceive. About 40% of infertility is due to a problem with the woman, 40% […] Continue

In Vitro Fertilization

In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a procedure in which the eggs from the women are mixed with the sperm from the man in a laboratory outside of the body. Embryos […] Continue

Infertility Treatment: Clomid

The most common infertility medication is clomiphene citrate brand name Clomid. This is used for women who are not ovulating. Glucophage aka metformin can be added to the Clomid for […] Continue

Advanced Reproductive Technology

Advanced reproductive Technology (ART) is defined on any medical treatment that helps overcome infertility. For the purposes here I am using it to describe some of the more techniquely advanced […] Continue

Treatment of Ovarian Cysts

Treatment of ovarian cysts has two general options. One is surgery to remove the cyst. The other is what is referred to as expectant management. This is simply following the […] Continue

Bleeding After Intercourse

Post-coital bleeding is the medical term for bleeding after intercourse and it is not normal. Post-coital bleeding can be caused from an infection, inflammation, or lesion on the cervix. It […] Continue

Classification of Ovarian Cysts

The classification of ovarian cysts is important because it helps guide therapy and treatment options. The first important question is weather the patient has gone through menopause. Cysts in a […] Continue

Normal Ovarian Function

In order to understand abnormal ovarian cysts one must first understand normal ovarian function. The ovary is responsible for making the female hormones as well as producing the eggs for […] Continue

Fibroids Overview

Fibroids are very common, 25% of women have some fibroids. Fibriods usually do not cause problems or symptoms but for some women fibroids can cause significant abnormal bleeding or pain. […] Continue

Decreased Menstrual Cycles

When people think of abnormal vaginal bleeding they usually think of too much bleeding. Infrequent or absent bleeding can be problematic as well. This can be a cause of infertility; […] Continue

Endometrial Biopsy

Endometrial biopsy (EMB) is an office procedure that samples the inside lining of the uterus looking for cancer or precancerous changes. This test is most frequently done as part of […] Continue


Hysterectomy is surgical removal of the uterus. A total hysterectomy is removal of the uterus and cervix, and a subtotal or partial hysterectomy is removal of the uterus while leaving […] Continue

Birth Control Overview

There are many different contraceptive choices available. There is no perfect birth control; each has its advantages and disadvantages. This is a “big picture” discussion of birth control discussing the […] Continue

Emergency Contraception

Emergency contraception is used in a situation where a woman has had unprotected intercourse. It is 80-90% effective if used within 72 hours after unprotected sex. Emergency contraception is also […] Continue


Essure is the trade name for bilateral tubal occlusion. This is a permanent sterilization procedure for women that can be performed in the doctor’s office with minimal or no anesthetic. […] Continue

Medical Treatments of Fibroids

There are several options for treating fibroids medically. Birth control pills, progesterones such as Provera, the Mirena IUD, and Lupron are all in this category. These will not cure the […] Continue

Surgical Treatments of Fibroids

Surgical management of fibroids includes uterine artery embolization, myomectomy, and hysterectomy. Uterine artery embolization is an outpatient procedure that is done by an invasive radiologist to stop the blood flow […] Continue

Bilateral Tubal Ligation

Bilateral Tubal ligation (BTL), also called getting the tubes tied, is a permanent form of birth control for a woman. The BTL has a very low failure rate, less than […] Continue

Pap Smear

The Papanicolaou test, or Pap smear is a test of the cervix looking for precancerous or cancerous cells. It is one of the most successful screening tests available and has […] Continue


LGSIL and HGSIL are designations of abnormal pap smears. They stand for Low (or High) Grade Squmous Intraepithelial Lesion and are often referred to as “low grade pap” or “high […] Continue

LEEP Cone Biopsy

LEEP stands for Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure. It is used to treat significant dysplasia and can usually be done in the office. This is done after a colposcopy that confirms […] Continue


HPV stands for human papillomavirus. It is really a family of viruses rather than a single entity. There are over 100 different strains of HPV and new ones are being […] Continue


ASCUS stands for “atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance”. It is a designation given to pap smears when the cells are not frankly abnormal but they are not perfectly normal […] Continue


Colposcopy is simply looking at the cervix with a microscope; it is often combined with biopsies of the cervix. Colposcopy is most commonly done to evaluate the cervix after an […] Continue

Cervical Dysplasia

Cervical Dysplasia is a pre-cancerous change of the cervix. It is not cancer and should never become cancer because there is a simple office procedure to treat dysplasia. Cervical dysplasia […] Continue

Barrier Methods

Condoms, the sponge, the diaphragm, the female condom, and the cervical cap are all examples of barrier methods. These need to be placed and then removed with each sexual encounter. […] Continue

Birth Control Shot

The birth control shot is called Depo Provera in the US. It is a shot given once per month and is very effective in preventing pregnancy. The side effects of […] Continue

Birth Control Ring

The contraceptive ring (Nuva Ring) is a soft plastic ring that is placed in the vagina and left in for 3 weeks. It is then removed and a new ring […] Continue

Birth Control Pills

Oral contraceptive agents (birth control pills) are what most people think of when people talk about birth control. They are most commonly a combination of estrogen and progesterone. They are […] Continue


The contraceptive patch is called Ortho Evra in the US. The patch has the same types of hormone as is found in birth control pills.  It just uses a different […] Continue


The IUD (or IUS) is a device that is placed in the uterus in the doctor’s office and stays in for 5 or 10 years depending on the individual product. […] Continue


The contraceptive implant is a single progesterone rod. It has a very low dose of hormone to minimize side effects. The main side effect is periods become irregular and unpredictable […] Continue